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Determination of free and conjugated forms of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in human biological fluids by GC−MS


Background: Humans are exposed to hazardous substances including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). These compounds have been associated with some diseases such as cancer and ascribed adverse effects on life-essential organs. Results: The method, which allows the determination of both free and conjugated forms of EDCs, involves the liquid–liquid extraction from the sample with ethyl acetate, followed by its preconcentration and clean-up by SPE in a continuous system for the subsequent determination by GC–MS. The proposed method affords very low LODs and RSD. Conclusion: This allowed its successful application to the determination of EDCs in human urine, blood and breast milk. The most frequently founded were methylparaben, ethylparaben, bisphenol A and triclosan.

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Recently there is a dilemma in the scientific and public spheres about the potential consequences of long-term dietary exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). New studies over EDCs have been focused on different hormones, such as androgen, progestin, pituitary, hypothalamic and thyroid. In animals have been demonstrated that a prenatal exposure to EDCs could develop difficulties and adverse problems into the reproductive, nervous, respiratory and cardiovascular systems [1]. Endocrine system disruption by exposure to ECDs has been associated with a variety of cancers such as testicular and breast tumors [2]. Bisphenol A (BPA), alkylphenols, phenylphenols, p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters (parabens, preservatives) and antimicrobials such as triclosan (TCS) are massively used in an extended variety of industrial and personal care products [3]; also, many of them are high production-volume chemicals [4]. Thus, parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetic products, pharmaceuticals and food processing procedures [5]. BPA is used in the manufacturing industry in can lining for food and beverage, polycarbonate plastic, thermal paper, medical devices and dental sealants [6].

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