Original Publication Date: 3 November, 2016
Publication / Source: Bioanalysis 8(23)
Authors: Sun Y, Yang K, Bridal T & Ehrhardt AG
Cancer immunotherapy has made a significant impact in the field of cancer treatment, from reshaping therapeutic concepts to raising the standard for care[1,2]. The recent approval of immune checkpoint blockade antibodies, which target cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 and programmed cell death protein-1 in melanoma, non-small-cell lung cancer and kidney cancer, has supported this trend[3,4]. In spite of this success, limitations still exist. Some cancer patients do not respond to such therapies; those who do respond often experience toxicities. To advance our understanding in this area, there is a growing need to identify predictive and prognostic biomarkers[5,6]. In this way, we can stratify patients, track tumor-specific immune responses and study the immune system’s complex interactions with cancer.
Ki67, a cell proliferation marker, has been used as a prognostic and/or predictive biomarker in patients with breast cancer and other tumors. Immunohistochemistry is commonly used to assess