Bioanalytical procedures and developments in the determination of alcohol biomarkers in biological specimens

Excessive alcohol consumption is a global problem, and consequently its evaluation is of great clinical and forensic interest. Alcohol biomarkers have been the focus of several research works in the past decades, with new compounds being studied in more recent years. The main objective of this review is to discuss topics for an analyst to consider when evaluating alcohol consumption through the analysis of alcohol biomarkers in biological specimens. For this, existing alcohol biomarkers will be reviewed, including carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, 5-hydroxytryptophol, ethanol, hemoglobin-associated acetaldehyde, fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate and phosphatidylethanol. Additionally, their potential will be discussed,...

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