NMR spectroscopy for discovery and quantitation of biomarkers of disease in human bile

Human liver synthesizes bile; bile, containing a large number of metabolites, is transported through the canaliculi and bile ducts, and stored in the gallbladder before entering into the intestine. In the intestine, a large number of bile metabolites are reabsorbed and sent back to the liver for recirculation. Owing to close association of the bile with the gastrointestinal system, the bile metabolic profile is highly sensitive to the onset of numerous gastrointestinal disease processes. A growing number of studies suggest that hepatobiliary disease biomarkers are richly populated in human bile. These studies stress the potential of profiling the human bile...

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