Spot them in the spot: analysis of abused substances using dried blood spots

Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and DBS analysis have increasingly received attention during recent years. Furthermore, a substantial number of DBS methods has recently become available in clinical, forensic and occupational toxicology. In this review, we provide an overview of the different DBS-based methods that have been developed for detecting (markers of) abused substances. These include both legal and illegal drugs belonging to different categories, including cannabinoids, cocaine and metabolites, opioids, benzodiazepines and Z-drugs, amphetamines and analogs, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, ketamine and novel psychoactive substances such as cathinones. Markers of ethanol consumption and tobacco use are also covered in this review....

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