Bioanalysis Zone

Current strategies in the discovery of small-molecule biomarkers for Alzheimer’s disease

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With the number of patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease rapidly increasing, there is a major requirement for an accurate biomarker capable of diagnosing the disease early. Much of the research is focused on protein and genetic approaches; however, small molecules may provide viable marker molecules. Examples that support this approach include known abnormalities in lipid metabolism, glucose utilization and oxidative stress, which have been demonstrated in patients suffering from the disease. Therefore, by-products of this irregular metabolism may provide accurate biomarkers. In this review we present the current approaches previously published in the literature used to investigate potential small-molecule and metabolite markers, and report their findings. A wide range of techniques are discussed, including separation approaches (LC, GC and CE), magnetic resonance technologies (NMR and magnetic resonance spectroscopy), and immunoassays.

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